Conversation With Practical Example

Getting ready for literary analysis

I.P. Pavlov  founder of modern physiology of digestion. Certainly, not all facts and theoretical provisions of Pavlov on physiology of digestive system keep the force and today. But in general the modern physiology of digestion still keeps an intaglio printing of thought and Pavlov's work.

Specific excitability of different links of digestive system and adaptive variability in its activity which were considered as Pavlov as bright manifestation of expediency of this activity and to which research he paid so much attention, were understood and lit with the great naturalist in aspect of materialistic outlook, with evolutionary approach to an origin of the difficult biological phenomena. He considered that these features of structure and function of digestive system developed in the course of centuries-old evolution of fauna as also other adaptive biological phenomena in Darvinian understanding develop.

Are not less important for mankind of research of Pavlov and in the light of modern ideas of people of tasty and healthy food, optimum frequency and volumes of its use. After all early studies on the caloric content and comprehensibility of food were carried out by Ivan Petrovich.

Pavlov proved that the mechanical irritation of a mucous membrane of a stomach is also not capable to cause secretion of gastric juice as many scientists at that time mistakenly believed, it proved that feedstuffs and products of their splitting can cause secretion of gastric juice only when they affect a mucous membrane day off (or pilorichesky) parts of a stomach and from there reflex excite activity of all gastric glands.

Pavlov's experiments described above resolved a problem of nervous regulation of activity of gastric glands the wandering nerves. This permission was helped by negative results of experiences of other scientists on electrostimulation of these nerves in sharp vivisektsionny conditions and faultless positive results of chronic experiments of Pavlov with imaginary feeding.

The science is obliged by the main and most authentic data on physiology of digestive glands to Pavlov. He actually anew created this important chapter of physiology, created the integral doctrine about uniform digestive process instead of earlier existing shapeless mix of sketchy, incomplete and often wrong data on work of these or those bodies of digestive system.

§ spoke for themselves and very few people from physiologists doubted that secretion of the gastric juice caused by action of food on mouth receptors has reflex character, but Pavlov proved it special and very beautiful experience. If at a dog with the operations described above to cut in the subsequent the wandering nerves (i.e. nerves which originate in a medulla and, going down, the branches innervate (supply bodies and fabrics with nervous elements (nervous fibers, cages) providing their communication with the central nervous system) the majority of bodies of a thorax and an abdominal cavity, including gastric glands), imaginary feeding will not cause subsequently release of gastric juice any more. Pavlov's conclusion from these experiences was so exact that excluded all others, and consisted in the following: the food excites the flavoring device, through flavoring nerves excitement is transferred to a medulla, and from there through the wandering nerves – to gastric glands, i.e. the reflex from a mouth on gastric glands is carried out. Pererezka of both wandering nerves interrupts ways of nervous excitement from a medulla to gastric glands, and the last at imaginary feeding or at the sight of food remain at rest. Absence and mental secretion of gastric juice when cutting of the wandering nerves is explained by that though the perceiving part of an arch of this reflex is more difficult, than at imaginary feeding, executive parts at them identical.

Thus, more than in 130 years of people managed to make more or less complete and exact idea of work of the digestive system. Nevertheless specification and expansion of knowledge of some bodies of digestive system and the processes happening in it (for example, the second phase of secretion gastric juice, demands efforts of new generations of researchers of the whole world. Probably, never there will come that time when there are no secrets of human life which will not interest scientists, but I hope that these people will never forget who began a great cause of knowledge the person of one more part of the organism.

The main lines of outlook of the author, his views of integrity of an organism with environment, views which unite it with the most visible scientists of its time Darwin, Sechenovy, Timiryazevy and others are embodied in this method.