Cobalt. Get to natural waters of compound of cobalt as a result of processes of their leaching of mednokolchedanovy and other ores, of soils at decomposition of organisms and plants, and also with sewage of steel, metalworking and chemical plants. Quantities of cobalt arrive from soils as a result of decomposition of vegetable and animal organisms.
Some microorganisms are capable to adapt to high concentration of ions of heavy metals. Resistance of microorganisms to high concentration of ions of heavy metals promotes low permeability of membranes for these ions, their removal from cages, and also intracellular neutralization. Heavy metals resistance of microorganisms in many cases is determined by plasmids. Allocation of strains of the bacteria steady against heavy metals matters for modern biotechnology.
At gramotritsatelny bacteria over single-layer or less often than a two-layer mureinovy bag the external layer of a cellular wall settles down. This layer of a wall consists of proteins, phospholipids and liposakharid.
Only the few mokhoobrazny are directly used by the person. Sfagna, the possessing antibiotic, a big moisture capacity and high heat-insulating qualities, were used in medicine for bandagings. Sfagna as heat-insulating material in construction are used. The class Mosses (Musci) is presented: a subclass sfagnovy, family sfagnovy, about 40 types are (Woolf, Girgenzon, dubravny, etc.).
Continuation of the works directed on determination of the maximum adsorptive capacity of natural fibers, influences of an exposition on intensity of process of adsorption, a temperature factor, Wednesdays, etc. is expedient.
Heavy metals sewage of galvanic shops, enterprises of mining, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, engineering plants are sources of pollution of waters. Heavy metals are a part of fertilizers and pesticides and can get to reservoirs together with a drain from agricultural grounds.
It is known that many natural gum of a phytogenesis (the Arabian gum, the Indian tragant, gum of fruits of a carob tree, etc.) possesses the adsorptive ability. The gum received from seeds of an evergreen tree of family of bean Ceratonia celegua () is quite good sorbent. Contrary to other gum, from it large numbers of ions of potassium, magnesium are not allocated. On the chemical composition represents linear copolymer with the elementary link consisting of four molecules of a mannoza and one molecule of a galactose. The molecular mass of polymer — 310000.
Metals resistance can be often connected with reduction of absorption or permeability of a cellular membrane. Transport of ions of metals in microbic cages is inhibited by low temperatures, metabolitny inhibitors and for lack of power sources. The speed of absorption is influenced by a metabolic condition of a cage and structure of environment. The transport systems met in microorganisms differ on specificity.
Metals influence many parties of a metabolism, their action on cages has, as a rule, nonspecific character. Cations of heavy metals can interact with hydroxyl, carboxyl, phosphatic, sulfgidrilny and amino groups, causing changes of properties of proteins, nucleotides, coenzymes, phospholipids which part the listed groups are. As a result of inhibition of fermental systems breath, synthesis of protein and RNA, function of a cytoplasmatic membrane are broken.
Getting into a cage, metals induce synthesis of intra plasmatic connections. Therefore there is a metal binding by polyphosphates or proteins metalproteins. The molecular mass of the last – 000-100 are typical For them three aromatic amino acids and the high content of the cysteine (30%) rich with SH groups. Metalindutsirovanny proteins were found in tsianobakteriya, bacteria, yeast.