In case there is a gratuitous granting economic values (goods, services or financial an asset to reflect this operation twice, in system of the balance of payments special article which is called "transfers" is entered.
The trade balance — the most often published — represents the net value of export only of goods (so-called "seen" export minus their import. It is possible to comment on change of trade balance differently: it is considered that excess of export over import shows that world demand for goods of this country amplifies. If the whole world buys export goods of this state and buyers in domestic market also prefer domestic goods import, economy of this country in a good shape. To the contrary, deficiency shows that goods of this country are insufficiently competitive, and her inhabitants have to undertake something to protect the standard of living.
At the same time, in order that on the basis of the balance of payments it was possible to draw the correct conclusions about a condition of foreign economic relations of the state, the analysis of mechanisms of influence of these or those economic events into accounts of balance as in itself they cannot give us positive or negative estimates of these or those phenomena is necessary.
The economic operations which are made between residents and nonresidents cover transactions which object are goods, services and the income, requirements and obligations in relation to other world, and also transfers (which from the registration point of view can be classified as unilateral transactions on the accounts). The economic transaction in itself is defined by the IMF as the economic stream reflecting creation, transformation, an exchange, transfer of some cost and accompanying change of property on goods and/or financial assets, rendering services, and also providing work or the capital for a payment.
existence of this or that article in the balance of payments has to matter for group of the countries, expressed both in dynamics of change of this article, and in its absolute value. In other words, if any indicator of system of the balance of payments is subject to strong fluctuations during the certain period of time at group of the countries or it occupies big specific weight in balances of payments of group of the countries, it has to be allocated in the form of separate article;
In this regard the IMF recommends to the countries to make the balance of payments in two options: according to standard components (neutral representation and in analytical representation. In neutral representation of operation are classified from the point of view of unconditional economic criteria. In analytical representation originators can rearrange definitely articles for receiving, for example, the general balance of the balance of payments which has to be always equal in neutral representation to zero.
For a start it is necessary to define that the monetary market is in balance in a case, when real money supply (the offer to the dena to equally cumulative demand for money. If to express demand for money as:
After consideration of the principles of drawing up and structure of the balance of payments it is obviously necessary to me to pass to a statement of approaches to definition of balance of the balance of payments — the main indicator used for the analysis as practicians, and economists-theorists.
Devaluation also influences decrease in cumulative internal expenses. First, it happens owing to increase in the nominal cash remains, secondly, because of redistribution of the income in favor of economic subjects to bigger minimum tendency to savings, thirdly, owing to a lag effect of nominal expenses when at increase in the prices the economic subjects who did not get used to new price level continue to spend as much money in nominal terms, how many and before increase, fourthly, owing to increase in interest rates, and fifthly as result of increase in the prices of import goods.